Review for BIO test 4 over 8-11 Flash Cards

 
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When an individual is exercising heavily and when the muscle becomes oxygen-deprived, muscle cells convert pyruvate to lactate. What happens to the lactate in skeletal muscle cells?

a. It is taken to the liver and converted back to pyruvate.
b. It reduces FADH2 to FAD+.
c. It is converted to alcohol.
d. It is converted to NAD+.
e. It produces CO2 and water.
a. It is taken to the liver and converted back to pyruvate. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:22:48 GMT view revision history
It is possible to prepare vesicles from portions of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Which one of the following processes could still be carried on by this isolated inner membrane?

a. reduction of NAD+
b. both the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
c. the citric acid cycle
d. glycolysis and fermentation
e. oxidative phosphorylation
e. oxidative phosphorylation 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:22:48 GMT view revision history
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?

a. cytosol
b. mitochondrial intermembrane space
c. mitochondrial outer membrane
d. mitochondrial matrix
e. mitochondrial inner membrane
e. mitochondrial inner membrane 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:21:40 GMT view revision history
Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?

a. It both splits molecules and assembles molecules.
b. It shifts molecules from cytosol to mitochondrion.
c. It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP.
d. It attaches and detaches phosphate groups.
e. It uses glucose and generates pyruvate.
c. It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:21:40 GMT view revision history
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis are

a. 6 CO2, 30 ATP, and 2 pyruvate.
b. 2 FADH2, 2 pyruvate, and 4 ATP.
c. 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP.
d. 6 CO2, 2 ATP, and 2 pyruvate.
e. 2 NAD+, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP.
c. 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:21:40 GMT view revision history
An electron loses potential energy when it

a. moves further away from the nucleus of the atom.
b. shifts to a more electronegative atom.
c. increases its kinetic energy.
d. shifts to a less electronegative atom.
e. increases its activity as an oxidizing agent.
b. shifts to a more electronegative atom. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:21:40 GMT view revision history
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?

a. the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
b. accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
c. glycolysis
d. the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP
e. the citric acid cycle
b. accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:19:29 GMT view revision history
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?

a. the citric acid cycle
b. glycolysis
c. the electron transport chain
d. reduction of pyruvate to lactate
e. synthesis of acetyl CoA from pyruvate
b. glycolysis 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:19:29 GMT view revision history
What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules?

a. thermodynamic pathways
b. fermentation pathways
c. catabolic pathways
d. bioenergetic pathways
e. anabolic pathways
c. catabolic pathways 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:19:29 GMT view revision history
If an enzyme is added to a solution where its substrate and product are in equilibrium, what will occur?

a. Additional substrate will be formed.
b. Additional product will be formed.
c. The free energy of the system will change.
d. Nothing; the reaction will stay at equilibrium.
e. The reaction will change from endergonic to exergonic.
d. Nothing; the reaction will stay at equilibrium. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:19:29 GMT view revision history
Succinate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of succinate to fumarate. The reaction is inhibited by malonic acid, which resembles succinate but cannot be acted upon by succinate dehydrogenase. Increasing the ratio of succinate to malonic acid reduces the inhibitory effect of malonic acid.


Based on this information, which of the following is correct?

a. Succinate dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and fumarate is the substrate.
b. Malonic acid is the product, and fumarate is a competitive inhibitor.
c. Succinate is the substrate, and fumarate is the product.
d. Fumarate is the product, and malonic acid is a noncompetitive inhibitor.
e. Succinate dehydrogenase is the enzyme, and malonic acid is the substrate.
c. Succinate is the substrate, and fumarate is the product. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:17:19 GMT view revision history
When you have a severe fever, what grave consequence may occur if the fever is not controlled?

a. removal of the amino acids in active sites of your enzymes
b. removal of amine groups from your proteins
c. binding of your enzymes to inappropriate substrates
d. destruction of your enzymes' primary structure
e. change in the tertiary structure of your enzymes
e. change in the tertiary structure of your enzymes 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:17:19 GMT view revision history
Which of the following is true of enzymes?

a. Enzyme function is increased if the 3-D structure or conformation of an enzyme is altered.
b. Nonprotein cofactors alter the substrate specificity of enzymes.
c. Enzyme function is independent of physical and chemical environmental factors such as pH and temperature.
d. Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by lowering activation energy barriers.
e. Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by providing activation energy to the substrate.
d. Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by lowering activation energy barriers. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:17:19 GMT view revision history
When chemical, transport, or mechanical work is done by an organism, what happens to the heat generated?

a. It is used to store energy as more ATP.
b. It is transported to specific organs such as the brain.
c. It is used to power yet more cellular work.
d. It is used to generate ADP from nucleotide precursors.
e. It is lost to the environment.
e. It is lost to the environment. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:17:19 GMT view revision history
Which of the following is most similar in structure to ATP?

a. a phospholipid
b. an amino acid with three phosphate groups attached
c. a DNA nucleotide
d. an RNA nucleotide
e. a pentose sugar
d. an RNA nucleotide 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:14:05 GMT view revision history
When glucose monomers are joined together by glycosidic linkages to form a cellulose polymer, the changes in free energy, total energy, and entropy are as follows:

a. +ΔG, +ΔH, +ΔS.
b. +ΔG, -ΔH, -ΔS.
c. -ΔG, -ΔH, -ΔS.
d. +ΔG, +ΔH, -ΔS.
e. -ΔG, +ΔH, +ΔS.
d. +ΔG, +ΔH, -ΔS. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:14:05 GMT view revision history
A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment?

a. green and yellow
b. blue, green, and red
c. green, blue, and yellow
d. red and yellow
e. blue and violet
e. blue and violet 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:14:05 GMT view revision history
How is photosynthesis similar in C4 plants and CAM plants?

a. Both types of plants make sugar without the Calvin cycle.
b. In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially.
c. Both types of plants make most of their sugar in the dark.
d. In both cases, thylakoids are not involved in photosynthesis.
e. In both cases, only photosystem I is used.
c. Both types of plants make most of their sugar in the dark. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:14:05 GMT view revision history
When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by-product of

a. chemiosmosis.
b. the electron transfer system of photosystem II.
c. reducing NADP+.
d. the electron transfer system of photosystem I.
e. splitting water molecules.
e. splitting water molecules. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:10:20 GMT view revision history
In an experiment studying photosynthesis performed during the day, you provide a plant with radioactive carbon (14C) dioxide as a metabolic tracer. The 14C is incorporated first into oxaloacetate. The plant is best characterized as a

a. chemoautotroph.
b. C3 plant.
c. C4 plant.
d. CAM plant.
e. heterotroph.
c. C4 plant. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:10:20 GMT view revision history
The phylogenetic distribution of the enzyme rubisco is limited to

a. all living cells.
b. C3 and C4 plants.
c. all known photoautotrophs, both bacterial and eukaryotic.
d. all photosynthetic eukaryotes.
e. C3 plants only.
b. C3 and C4 plants. 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:10:20 GMT view revision history
In the process of carbon fixation, RuBP attaches a CO2 to produce a six-carbon molecule, which is then split to produce two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. After phosphorylation and reduction produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), what more needs to happen to complete the Calvin cycle?

a. regeneration of NADP+
b. regeneration of ATP from ADP
c. regeneration of RuBP
d. addition of a pair of electrons from NADPH
e. inactivation of RuBP carboxylase enzyme
c. regeneration of RuBP 0 Jennymarie790 Sun, 09 Oct 2011 00:10:20 GMT view revision history
P680+ is said to be the strongest biological oxidizing agent. Why?

a. This molecule has a stronger attraction for electrons than oxygen, to obtain electrons from water.
b. It has a positive charge.
c. It transfers its electrons to reduce NADP+ to NADPH.
d. It is the receptor for the most excited electron in either photosystem.
e. It is the molecule that transfers electrons to plastoquinone (Pq) of the electron transfer system.
a. This molecule has a stronger attraction for electrons than oxygen, to obtain electrons from water. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 23:58:17 GMT view revision history
Reduction of NADP+ occurs during

a. respiration.
b. photosynthesis.
c. neither photosynthesis nor respiration.
d. both photosynthesis and respiration.
e. photorespiration.
b. photosynthesis. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 23:58:17 GMT view revision history
Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?

a. outer membrane of mitochondria
b. thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
c. stroma of chloroplasts
d. cytoplasm
e. matrix of mitochondria
b. thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 23:58:17 GMT view revision history
What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve?

a. movement of water by osmosis into the thylakoid space from the stroma
b. reduction of water to produce ATP energy
c. formation of glucose, using carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP
d. diffusion of electrons through the thylakoid membrane
e. establishment of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane
e. establishment of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 23:58:16 GMT view revision history
Protein kinases are enzymes that catalyze phosphorylation of target proteins at specific sites, whereas protein phosphatases catalyze removal of phosphate(s) from phosphorylated proteins. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation can function as an on-off switch for a protein's activity, most likely through

A. the excision of one or more peptides.
B. the change in a protein's charge leading to a conformational change.
C. the change in a protein's charge leading to cleavage.
D. a change in the optimal temperature at which a reaction will occur.
E. a change in the optimal pH at which a reaction will occur.
B. the change in a protein's charge leading to a conformational change. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:57:45 GMT view revision history
When you have a severe fever, what grave consequence may occur if the fever is not controlled?

A. removal of amine groups from your proteins
B. change in the tertiary structure of your enzymes
C. binding of your enzymes to inappropriate substrates
D. destruction of your enzymes' primary structure
E. removal of the amino acids in active sites of your enzymes
B. change in the tertiary structure of your enzymes 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:38:24 GMT view revision history
For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?

A. Organisms grow by converting energy into organic matter.
B. Life does not obey the first law of thermodynamics.
C. The energy content of an organism is constant.
D. The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment.
E. The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity.
D. The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:38:24 GMT view revision history
What is the difference (if any) between the structure of ATP and the structure of the precursor of the A nucleotide in RNA?

A. There is no difference.
B. The number of phosphates is three instead of two.
C. The sugar molecule is different.
D. The nitrogen-containing base is different.
E. The number of phosphates is three instead of one.
A. There is no difference. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:38:24 GMT view revision history
How might an amino acid change at a site distant from the active site of the enzyme alter the enzyme's substrate specificity?

A. by changing the enzyme's location in the cell
B. an amino acid change away from the active site cannot alter the enzyme's substrate specificity
C. by changing the enzyme's stability
D. by changing the shape of the protein
E. by changing the enzyme's pH optimum
D. by changing the shape of the protein 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:38:24 GMT view revision history
Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as ________ is to ________.

A. entropy; enthalpy
B. free energy; entropy
C. work; energy
D. exergonic; spontaneous
E. exergonic; endergonic
E. exergonic; endergonic 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:29:54 GMT view revision history
If an enzyme is added to a solution where its substrate and product are in equilibrium, what will occur?

A. Nothing; the reaction will stay at equilibrium.
B. The free energy of the system will change.
C. Additional product will be formed.
D. The reaction will change from endergonic to exergonic.
E. Additional substrate will be formed.
A. Nothing; the reaction will stay at equilibrium. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:29:54 GMT view revision history
A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X → Y → Z → A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.

A. the substrate.
B. a competitive inhibitor.
C. an intermediate.
D. an allosteric inhibitor.
E. a coenzyme.
D. an allosteric inhibitor. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:29:54 GMT view revision history
Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?

A. Its terminal phosphate group contains a strong covalent bond that, when hydrolyzed, releases free energy.
B. Its terminal phosphate bond has higher energy than the other two.
C. Its hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions.
D. It is one of the four building blocks for DNA synthesis.
E. It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions.
E. It provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:29:54 GMT view revision history
Chemical signal pathways

A. are absent in bacteria, but are plentiful in yeast.
B. use hydrophilic molecules to activate enzymes.
C. operate in animals, but not in plants.
D. involve the release of hormones into the blood.
E. often involve the binding of signal molecules to a protein on the surface of a target cell.
E. often involve the binding of signal molecules to a protein on the surface of a target cell. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:12:56 GMT view revision history
Testosterone functions inside a cell by



A. becoming a second messenger that inhibits adenylyl cyclase.
B. binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes.
C. acting as a signal receptor that activates ion-channel proteins.
D. coordinating a phosphorylation cascade that increases glycogen metabolism.
E. acting as a steroid signal receptor that activates ion-channel proteins.
B. binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:12:56 GMT view revision history
Up to 60% of all medicines used today exert their effects by influencing what structures in the cell membrane?

A. tyrosine-kinases receptors
B. G proteins
C. cholesterol
D. growth factors
E. ligand-gated ion channel receptors
B. G proteins 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:03:37 GMT view revision history
Membrane receptors that attach phosphates to specific animo acids in proteins are

A. called receptor tyrosine-kinases.
B. associated with several bacterial diseases in humans.
C. not found in humans.
D. important in yeast mating factors that contain amino acids.
E. a class of GTP G-protein signal receptors.
A. called receptor tyrosine-kinases. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:03:37 GMT view revision history
G proteins and G-protein-linked receptors

A. probably evolved from an adaptation of the citric acid cycle.
B. are thought to have evolved very early, because of their similar structure and function in a wide variety of modern organisms.
C. are found only in animal cells, and only embedded in or located just beneath the cell's membrane.
D. are not widespread in nature and were unimportant in the evolution of eukaryotes.
E. are found only in bacterial cells, embedded in the cell's plasma membrane only.
B. are thought to have evolved very early, because of their similar structure and function in a wide variety of modern organisms. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:03:37 GMT view revision history
Of the following, a receptor protein in a membrane that recognizes a chemical signal is most similar to

A. an enzyme with an optimum pH and temperature for activity.
B. a particular metabolic pathway operating within a specific organelle.
C. RNA specifying the amino acids in a polypeptide.
D. the active site of an allosteric enzyme in the cytoplasm that binds to a specific substrate.
E. genes making up a chromosome.
D. the active site of an allosteric enzyme in the cytoplasm that binds to a specific substrate. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 22:03:37 GMT view revision history
A small molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, usually a larger one

A. is called a polymer.
B. is called a signal transducer.
C. seldom is involved in hormonal signaling.
D. is called a ligand.
E. usually terminates a signal reception.
D. is called a ligand. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:57:20 GMT view revision history
Synaptic signaling between adjacent neurons is like hormone signaling in which of the following ways?

A. It sends its signal molecules through the blood.
B. It persists over a long period.
C. It sends its signal molecules quite a distance.
D. It requires binding of a signaling molecule to a receptor.
E. It requires calcium ions.
D. It requires binding of a signaling molecule to a receptor. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:57:20 GMT view revision history
The process of transduction usually begins

A. when the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way.
B. when the chemical signal is released from the alpha cell.
C. after the third stage of cell signaling is completed.
D. when the hormone is released from the gland into the blood.
E. after the target cell divides.
A. when the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:57:20 GMT view revision history
From the perspective of the cell receiving the message, the three stages of cell signaling are

A. signal reception, nucleus disintegration, and new cell generation.
B. signal reception, cellular response, and cell division.
C. the alpha, beta, and gamma stages.
D. the paracrine, local, and synaptic stages.
E. signal reception, signal transduction, and cellular response.
E. signal reception, signal transduction, and cellular response. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:57:20 GMT view revision history
Which of the following are directly associated with photosystem I?

A. receiving electrons from plastocyanin
B. P680 reaction-center chlorophyll
C. extraction of hydrogen electrons from the splitting of water
D. harvesting of light energy by ATP
E. passing electrons to plastoquinone
A. receiving electrons from plastocyanin 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:45:55 GMT view revision history
The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because

A. the plastoquinone reflects light with a wavelength of 700 nm.
B. this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm.
C. it absorbs 700 photons per microsecond.
D. there are 700 chlorophyll molecules in the center.
E. there are 700 photosystem I components to each chloroplast.
B. this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:45:55 GMT view revision history
When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product of which of the following?

A. chemiosmosis
B. the electron transfer system of photosystem II
C. the electron transfer system of photosystem I
D. reducing NADP+
E. splitting the water molecules
E. splitting the water molecules 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:45:55 GMT view revision history
In autotrophic bacteria, where are the enzymes located that can carry on organic synthesis?

A. along the inner surface of the plasma membrane
B. chloroplast membranes
C. along the outer edge of the nucleoid
D. nuclear membranes
E. free in the cytosol
A. along the inner surface of the plasma membrane 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:45:55 GMT view revision history
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?

A. chlorophyll molecule
B. outer membrane of the chloroplast
C. cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplast
D. thylakoid membrane
E. stroma of the chloroplast
E. stroma of the chloroplast 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:36:41 GMT view revision history
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?

A. CO2 and glucose
B. H2O and O2
C. ATP and NADPH
D. ADP, Pi, and NADP+
E. electrons and H+
C. ATP and NADPH 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:36:41 GMT view revision history
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent?

A. glycolysis
B. the citric acid cycle
C. chemiosmosis
D. electron transport
E. oxidative phosphorylation
A. glycolysis 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:36:41 GMT view revision history
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?

A. the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP
B. the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
C. accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain
D. glycolysis
E. the citric acid cycle
C. accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:36:41 GMT view revision history
Where does glycolysis takes place?

A. mitochondrial intermembrane space
B. mitochondrial outer membrane
C. mitochondrial inner membrane
D. mitochondrial matrix
E. cytosol
E. cytosol 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:28:13 GMT view revision history
When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a hydrogen ion) the molecule becomes

A. reduced.
B. hydrogenated.
C. a reducing agent.
D. oxidized.
E. redoxed.
A. reduced. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:28:13 GMT view revision history
Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

A. O2 is reduced and CO2 is oxidized.
B. C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.
C. CO2 is reduced and O2 is oxidized.
D. C6H12O6 is reduced and CO2 is oxidized.
E. O2 is oxidized and H2O is reduced.
B. C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:28:13 GMT view revision history
The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction

A. neither gains nor loses electrons, but gains or loses energy.
B. loses electrons and gains energy.
C. gains electrons and gains energy.
D. loses electrons and loses energy.
E. gains electrons and loses energy.
D. loses electrons and loses energy. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:28:13 GMT view revision history
A chemical reaction that has a positive G is correctly described as

A. exothermic.
B. spontaneous.
C. enthalpic.
D. endergonic.
E. endothermic.
D. endergonic 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:21:52 GMT view revision history
Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?

A. The reactions are nonspontaneous.
B. The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.
C. The products have more total energy than the reactants.
D. A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed.
E. Some reactants will be converted to products.
B. The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:21:52 GMT view revision history
The mathematical expression for the change in free energy of a system is G =H-TS. Which of the following is (are)

A. G is the change in free energy.
B. T is the temperature in degrees Celsius.
C. H is the change in entropy, the energy available to do work.
D. S is the change in enthalpy, a measure of randomness.
A. G is the change in free energy. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:21:52 GMT view revision history
Which of the following statements is representative of the second law of thermodynamics?

A. Without an input of energy, organisms would tend toward decreasing entropy.
B. Every energy transformation by a cell decreases the entropy of the universe.
C. Heat represents a form of energy that can be used by most organisms to do work.
D. Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization.
E. Conversion of energy from one form to another is always accompanied by some gain of free energy.
D. Cells require a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of organization. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:21:52 GMT view revision history
Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the

A. free energy of the system.
B. enthalpy of the universe.
C. entropy of the universe.
D. entropy of the system.
E. free energy of the universe.
C. entropy of the universe. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:12:26 GMT view revision history
Living organisms increase in complexity as they grow, resulting in a decrease in the entropy of an organism. How does this relate to the second law of thermodynamics?


A. Life obeys the second law of thermodynamics because the decrease in entropy as the organism grows is balanced by an increase in the entropy of the universe.
B. Living organisms do not follow the laws of thermodynamics.
C. Living organisms do not obey the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy must increase with time.
D. As a consequence of growing, organisms create more disorder in their environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth.
E. Living organisms are able to transform energy into entropy.
D. As a consequence of growing, organisms create more disorder in their environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:12:26 GMT view revision history
Which of the following is (are) true for anabolic pathways?

A. They do not depend on enzymes.
B. They are usually highly spontaneous chemical reactions.
C. They release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers.
D. They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.
D. They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers. 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:12:26 GMT view revision history
Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?

A. anabolism
B. catabolism
C. dehydration
D. catalysis
E. metabolism
B. catabolism 0 Jennymarie790 Sat, 08 Oct 2011 21:12:26 GMT view revision history

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