Ch. 20 Flash Cards

 
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8) In recombinant DNA methods, the term vector can refer to D) a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a living cell. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 15:01:35 GMT view revision history
7) Which of the following sequences in double-stranded DNA is most likely to be recognized as a cutting site for a restriction enzyme? C)
GGCC
CCGG
0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 15:01:35 GMT view revision history
6) DNA technology has many medical applications. Which of the following is not done routinely at present? C) introduction of genetically engineered genes into human gametes 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 15:01:35 GMT view revision history
5) Expression of a cloned eukaryotic gene in a bacterial cell involves many challenges. The use of mRNA and reverse transcriptase is part of a strategy to solve the problem of A) post-transcriptional processing. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 15:01:35 GMT view revision history
4) A paleontologist has recovered a bit of tissue from the 400-year-old preserved skin of an extinct dodo (a bird). The researcher would like to compare a specific region of the DNA from the sample with DNA from living birds. Which of the following would be most useful for increasing the amount of dodo DNA available for testing? B) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:59:43 GMT view revision history
3) Plants are more readily manipulated by genetic engineering than are animals because C) a somatic plant cell can often give rise to a complete plant. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:59:43 GMT view revision history
2) Which of the following would not be true of cDNA produced using human brain tissue as the starting material? B) It could be used to create a complete genomic library. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:59:43 GMT view revision history
1) Which of the following tools of recombinant DNA technology is incorrectly paired with its use? B) DNA ligase–enzyme that cuts DNA, creating the sticky ends of restriction fragments 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:59:43 GMT view revision history
61) As genetic technology makes testing for a wide variety of genotypes possible, which of the following is likely to be an increasingly troublesome issue? C) the need to legislate for the protection of the privacy of genetic information 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:58:58 GMT view revision history
60) One possible use of transgenic plants is in the production of human proteins, such as vaccines. Which of the following is a possible hindrance that must be overcome? A) prevention of transmission of plant allergens to the vaccine recipients 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:58:58 GMT view revision history
59) Why would Gleevec most probably cause remission of the disease? E) The drug inhibits the specific thymine kinase receptor. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:58:58 GMT view revision history
58) Which of the following would be a reasonably efficient technique for confirming the diagnosis of CML? D) FISH study to determine the chromosomal location of all chromosome 22 q fragments 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:58:58 GMT view revision history
57) Which of the following is one of the technical reasons why gene therapy is problematic? D) Transferred genes may not have appropriately controlled activity. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:57:58 GMT view revision history
56) One successful form of gene therapy has involved delivery of an allele for the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) to bone marrow cells of a child with SCID, and delivery of these engineered cells back to the bone marrow of the affected child. What is one major reason for the success of this procedure as opposed to many other efforts at gene therapy? C) The engineered cells, when reintroduced into the patient, find their way back to the bone marrow. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:57:58 GMT view revision history
55) Scientists developed a set of guidelines to address the safety of DNA technology. Which of the following is one of the adopted safety measures? A) Microorganisms used in recombinant DNA experiments are genetically crippled to ensure that they cannot survive outside of the laboratory. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:57:58 GMT view revision history
54) Genetically engineered plants B) include a transgenic rice plant that can help prevent vitamin A deficiency. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:57:58 GMT view revision history
53) Genetic engineering is being used by the pharmaceutical industry. Which of the following is not currently one of the uses? E) creation of products that will remove poisons from the human body 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:57:04 GMT view revision history
52) Gene therapy D) had apparent success in treating disorders involving bone marrow cells. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:57:04 GMT view revision history
48) A researcher is using adult stem cells and comparing them to other adult cells from the same tissue. Which of the following is a likely finding? A) The cells from the two sources exhibit different patterns of DNA methylation. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:57:04 GMT view revision history
47) Which of the following is true of embryonic stem cells but not of adult stem cells? B) They make up the majority of cells of the tissue from which they are derived. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:57:04 GMT view revision history
46) Reproductive cloning of human embryos is generally considered unethical. However, on the subject of therapeutic cloning there is a wider divergence of opinion. Which of the following is a likely explanation? B) Cloning to produce embryonic stem cells may lead to great medical benefits for many. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:55:47 GMT view revision history
45) Which of the following problems with animal cloning might result in premature death of the clones? C) abnormal regulation due to variant methylation 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:55:47 GMT view revision history
44) In 1997, Dolly the sheep was cloned. Which of the following processes was used? D) fusion of an adult cell's nucleus with an enucleated sheep egg, followed by incubation in a surrogate 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:55:47 GMT view revision history
43) Which of the following is most closely identical to the formation of twins? E) organismal cloning 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:55:47 GMT view revision history
42) Which of the following techniques used to analyze gene function depends on the specificity of DNA base complementarity? C) in vitro mutagenesis 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:54:49 GMT view revision history
41) A researcher has used in vitro mutagenesis to mutate a cloned gene and then has reinserted this into a cell. In order to have the mutated sequence disable the function of the gene, what must then occur? A) recombination resulting in replacement of the wild type with the mutated gene 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:54:49 GMT view revision history
40) RNAi methodology uses double-stranded pieces of RNA to trigger a breakdown or blocking of mRNA. For which of the following might it more possibly be useful? B) to decrease the production from a harmful gain-of-function mutated gene 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:54:49 GMT view revision history
39) Which uses reverse transcriptase to make cDNA followed by amplification? E) RT-PCR 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:54:49 GMT view revision history
38) Which describes the transfer of polypeptide sequences to a membrane to analyze gene expression? C) Western blotting 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:53:53 GMT view revision history
37) Which was developed by a British researcher and causes DNA sequences to be transferred to a membrane and identified with a probe? A) Southern blotting 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:53:53 GMT view revision history
36) DNA microarrays have made a huge impact on genomic studies because they C) allow the expression of many or even all of the genes in the genome to be compared at once. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:53:53 GMT view revision history
35) Dideoxyribonucleotide chain-termination is a method of B) sequencing DNA. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:53:53 GMT view revision history
34) Which of the following procedures would produce RFLPs? C) incubating DNA with restriction enzymes 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:52:44 GMT view revision history
32) RFLP analysis can be used to distinguish between alleles based on differences in which of the following? A) restriction enzyme recognition sites between the alleles 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:52:44 GMT view revision history
31) DNA fragments from a gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose paper during the procedure called Southern blotting. What is the purpose of transferring the DNA from a gel to a nitrocellulose paper? A) to attach the DNA fragments to a permanent substrate 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:52:44 GMT view revision history
30) Which of the following modifications is least likely to alter the rate at which a DNA fragment moves through a gel during electrophoresis? A) altering the nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:52:44 GMT view revision history
29) In order to identify a specific restriction fragment using a probe, what must be done? E) A, B, and C are correct. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:51:35 GMT view revision history
28) Restriction fragments of DNA are typically separated from one another by which process? C) gel electrophoresis 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:51:35 GMT view revision history
27) Which of the following separates molecules by movement due to size and electrical charge? D) gel electrophoresis 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:51:35 GMT view revision history
26) Which of the following cuts DNA molecules at specific locations? A) restriction enzymes 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:51:35 GMT view revision history
25) Which of the following is used to make complementary DNA (cDNA) from RNA? E) reverse transcriptase 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:48:47 GMT view revision history
24) Which of the following seals the sticky ends of restriction fragments to make recombinant DNA? C) DNA ligase 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:48:47 GMT view revision history
23) Which of the following produces multiple identical copies of a gene for basic research or for large-scale production of a gene product? B) gene cloning 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:48:47 GMT view revision history
22) The major advantage of using artificial chromosomes such as YACs and BACs for cloning genes is C) YACs and BACs can carry much larger DNA fragments than ordinary plasmids can. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:48:47 GMT view revision history
21) To introduce a particular piece of DNA into an animal cell, such as that of a mouse, you would find more probable success with which of the following methods? B) electroporation followed by recombination 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:46:46 GMT view revision history
20) Sequencing an entire genome, such as that of C. elegans, a nematode, is most important because D) a sequence that is found to have a particular function in the nematode is likely to have a closely related function in vertebrates. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:46:46 GMT view revision history
19) The first cell whose entire genome was sequenced was which of the following? A) H. influenzae in 1995 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:46:46 GMT view revision history
18) A student wishes to clone a sequence of DNA of ~200 kb. Which vector would be appropriate? C) a BAC 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:46:46 GMT view revision history
17) A researcher needs to clone a sequence of part of a eukaryotic genome in order to express the sequence and to modify the polypeptide product. She would be able to satisfy these requirements by using which of the following vectors? E) a YAC with appropriate cellular enzymes 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:45:30 GMT view revision history
16) Which of the following best describes the complete sequence of steps occurring during every cycle of PCR?
1. The primers hybridize to the target DNA.
2. The mixture is heated to a high temperature to denature the double stranded target DNA.
3. Fresh DNA polymerase is added.
4. DNA polymerase extends the primers to make a copy of the target DNA.
A) 2, 1, 4 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:45:30 GMT view revision history
15) Yeast artificial chromosomes contain which of the following elements? E) centromere, telomeres, and an origin of replication 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:45:30 GMT view revision history
14) How does a genomic library differ from a cDNA library? C) A genomic library can be made using a restriction enzyme and DNA ligase only, whereas a cDNA library requires both of these as well as reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:45:30 GMT view revision history
13) The DNA fragments making up a genomic library are generally contained in A) recombinant plasmids of bacteria. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:44:30 GMT view revision history
12) Why are yeast cells frequently used as hosts for cloning? D) they are eukaryotic cells 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:44:30 GMT view revision history
11) A gene that contains introns can be made shorter (but remain functional) for genetic engineering purposes by using C) reverse transcriptase to reconstruct the gene from its mRNA. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:44:30 GMT view revision history
10) A principal problem with inserting an unmodified mammalian gene into a bacterial plasmid, and then getting that gene expressed in bacteria, is that C) bacteria cannot remove eukaryotic introns. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:44:30 GMT view revision history
9) Bacteria that do not take up any plasmids would grow on which media? A) the nutrient broth only 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:43:42 GMT view revision history
8) Bacteria containing a plasmid into which the eukaryotic gene has integrated would grow in E) the ampicillin broth and the nutrient broth. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:43:42 GMT view revision history
7) Bacteria that contain the plasmid, but not the eukaryotic gene, would grow D) in all four types of broth. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:43:42 GMT view revision history
6) Bacteria containing recombinant plasmids are often identified by which process? C) exposing the bacteria to an antibiotic that kills cells lacking the resistant plasmid 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:43:42 GMT view revision history
5) What is the most logical sequence of steps for splicing foreign DNA into a plasmid and inserting the plasmid into a bacterium?
I. Transform bacteria with recombinant DNA molecule.
II. Cut the plasmid DNA using restriction enzymes.
III. Extract plasmid DNA from bacterial cells.
IV. Hydrogen-bond the plasmid DNA to nonplasmid DNA fragments.
V. Use ligase to seal plasmid DNA to nonplasmid DNA.
C) III, II, IV, V, I 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:41:49 GMT view revision history
4) How does a bacterial cell protect its own DNA from restriction enzymes? A) adding methyl groups to adenines and cytosines 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:41:49 GMT view revision history
3) What is the enzymatic function of restriction enzymes? D) to cleave nucleic acids at specific sites 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:41:49 GMT view revision history
2) Assume that you are trying to insert a gene into a plasmid. Someone gives you a preparation of genomic DNA that has been cut with restriction enzyme X. The gene you wish to insert has sites on both ends for cutting by restriction enzyme Y. You have a plasmid with a single site for Y, but not for X. Your strategy should be to C) cut the DNA again with restriction enzyme Y and insert these fragments into the plasmid cut with the same enzyme. 0 rgizaw Sun, 11 Apr 2010 14:41:49 GMT view revision history

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